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Basketball english

basketball english

n-ds.eu German-English Dictionary: Translation for Basketball [Spiel]. Many translated example sentences containing "Basketball" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations. Basketball translations: basketball, basketball, basketball. Learn more in the Cambridge German-English Dictionary.

The maximum number of players on the bench differs by league. In international play, a maximum of 7 players are allowed on the bench, resulting in a roster of 12 players.

The NBA has player rosters; college and high school teams have player rosters. When a player wants to substitute for another player on the court, they let the score bench know.

The referees will signal for the player waiting to come into the court. The player that went into the game is now playing and the player that was playing is sitting on the bench known as substitutes.

A game of basketball is made up of four different quarters, each ten or in the National Basketball Association , 12 minutes long. At the start of every game the referee throws the basketball up in the air, and one player from each team tries to hit it to their teammates, that is called a "jump ball.

At the start of each quarter the team who has the possession arrow pointing towards their hoop gets the ball. Then the arrow is switched, and the next team gets the ball next quarter.

After four quarters, the team who scores the most points wins. If the two teams score the same number of points, there is a five-minute "overtime" to see who can score more points.

While playing the game, players on one team try to stop players on the other team from scoring. Each normal score is worth two points; however, if a player throws the ball into the hoop from behind the large arced line on the court, called the "3-point line," the score is worth three points.

If a player does something illegal in the game, it is called a "foul. A free throw is a shot that no one is allowed to try to block. Each successful free throw is worth one point.

If a player fouls an opponent who is not shooting, the other team gets the ball, and can throw it in bounds from the sideline.

Players can do three things with the ball: The player with the ball tries to keep the ball and not let the other team get it. Once a player commits five fouls, he is no longer allowed to play in the game, and a player on the bench must go in the game immediately.

In a game of basketball, there are a number of officials who are not from either team, who are there to help. Officials are important to the game, and help it run efficiently.

Here is a list of some of these people:. Fans and media in North America will often use "referee" to describe all on-court officials, whether their formal titles are "referee", "umpire", or "crew chief".

There are some basketball terms that players have to understand when playing the game. Here are some terms:. In professional basketball teams, each player has a position.

A position is a job or role that a player has to take part in to play the game. If everyone is doing their job correctly, the team is usually successful.

There are many types of basketball. Some are for people with disabilities, others are played more by a specific group, some are played using only half the court, and some are for when there are fewer players.

This is the most popular "pick up game" variation of basketball. Pick up games are when teams are chosen on the court instead of having official teams.

Due to there being no referee, this more casual game has more relaxed rules than official games. Instead of 5 players, there are only three players on each team, hence the name.

While the exact rules vary from place to place, there are several common rules typically found in most games, including:.

There are officially sponsored 3 on 3 tournaments, though the game is mostly played without an official league. Twenty-one 21 is a variation of basketball that does not include teams.

It is often played with odd-numbers of players or when there are too few players for 3 on 3 games. The object of 21 is to score exactly 21 points.

Players keep track of their own scores and call out their points after making a basket. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters.

After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums , he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a foot 3.

In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed, [6] allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.

Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. Whereas in American football , the lace construction proved to be advantageous for gripping and remains to this day.

The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late s that Tony Hinkle , searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use.

Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement.

Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the s [ citation needed ] , as manufacturing improved the ball shape.

The peach baskets were used until when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through.

Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most points won the game.

The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original first game, approached Naismith after the Christmas break, in early , asking him what he intended to call his new game.

Mahan suggested that it be called "Naismith ball", at which he laughed, saying that a name like that would kill any game.

Mahan then said, "Why not call it basketball? The game ended at 1—0; the shot was made from 25 feet 7. At the time, football was being played with 10 to a team which was increased to When winter weather got too icy to play football, teams were taken indoors, and it was convenient to have them split in half and play basketball with five on each side.

By — teams of five became standard. However, other amateur sports clubs, colleges, and professional clubs quickly filled the void. The first pro league, the National Basketball League, was formed in to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game.

This league only lasted five years. James Naismith was instrumental in establishing college basketball. On February 9, , the first intercollegiate 5-on-5 game was played at Hamline University between Hamline and the School of Agriculture, which was affiliated with the University of Minnesota.

McGill won 9—7 in overtime; the score was 7—7 at the end of regulation play, and a ten-minute overtime period settled the outcome.

A good turnout of spectators watched the game. College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from to , when dozens of players from top teams were implicated in match fixing and point shaving.

Before widespread school district consolidation, most American high schools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. During the first decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements.

In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America.

Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition. In the —17 season, , boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations.

There is currently no tournament to determine a national high school champion. The most serious effort was the National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament at the University of Chicago from to The event was organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg and sent invitations to state champion teams.

The tournament started out as a mostly Midwest affair but grew. In it had 29 state champions. Faced with opposition from the National Federation of State High School Associations and North Central Association of Colleges and Schools that bore a threat of the schools losing their accreditation the last tournament was in The organizations said they were concerned that the tournament was being used to recruit professional players from the prep ranks.

The basis for the champion dwindled after when Brown v. Board of Education began an integration of schools. The last tournaments were held at Alabama State College from to Teams abounded throughout the s.

Players jumped from team to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance halls. Leagues came and went.

Barnstorming squads such as the Original Celtics and two all-African American teams, the New York Renaissance Five "Rens" and the still existing Harlem Globetrotters played up to two hundred games a year on their national tours.

By the s, basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball.

In , a basketball hall of fame was founded in Springfield , Massachusetts, site of the first game. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game.

The hall of fame has people who have accomplished many goals in their career in basketball. Today the NBA is the top professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.

As of the —19 season, the G League has 27 teams. At this time, the organization only oversaw amateur players.

The United States defeated Canada in the first final, played outdoors. This competition has usually been dominated by the United States, whose team has won all but three titles.

The first of these came in a controversial final game in Munich in against the Soviet Union, in which the ending of the game was replayed three times until the Soviet Union finally came out on top.

Prior to the Summer Olympics , only European and South American teams were allowed to field professionals in the Olympics. In the Athens Olympics , the United States suffered its first Olympic loss while using professional players, falling to Puerto Rico in a point loss and Lithuania in group games, and being eliminated in the semifinals by Argentina.

It eventually won the bronze medal defeating Lithuania, finishing behind Argentina and Italy. Worldwide, basketball tournaments are held for boys and girls of all age levels.

The global popularity of the sport is reflected in the nationalities represented in the NBA. Players from all six inhabited continents currently play in the NBA.

It was founded as a "rebellion" of several teams from the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, which was tightly controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines now defunct , the then-FIBA recognized national association.

The league commenced in , playing a winter season April—September and did so until the completion of the 20th season in The —99 season, which commenced only months later, was the first season after the shift to the current summer season format October—April.

It features 8 teams from around Australia and one in New Zealand. Shortly after she was hired at Smith, she went to Naismith to learn more about the game.

By , the game had spread to colleges across the country, including Wellesley , Vassar , and Bryn Mawr. Stanford women played Berkeley , 9-on-9, ending in a 2—1 Stanford victory.

The Grads toured all over North America, and were exceptionally successful. They posted a record of wins and only 20 losses over that span, as they met any team that wanted to challenge them, funding their tours from gate receipts.

The WNBA has been looked at by many as a niche league. However, the league has recently taken steps forward. The new television deal ran from to Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section.

An attempt to score in this way is called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc 6.

The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours.

Five players from each team may be on the court at one time. Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers.

Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach or sometimes mandated in the NBA for a short meeting with the players, are allowed.

They generally last no longer than one minute seconds in the NBA unless, for televised games, a commercial break is needed. The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee referred to as crew chief in the NBA , one or two umpires referred to as referees in the NBA and the table officials.

For college, the NBA, and many high schools, there are a total of three referees on the court. The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls , player substitutions, team possession arrow , and the shot clock.

The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the ball and the court: Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, scoreboard s , alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems.

A regulation basketball court in international games is At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet 3.

While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height — a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.

The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is If women are playing, the official basketball size is The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or dribbled bouncing the ball while running.

The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession. The ball is out of bounds if it touches a boundary line, or touches any player or object that is out of bounds.

There are limits placed on the steps a player may take without dribbling, which commonly results in an infraction known as traveling. Nor may a player stop his dribble and then resume dribbling.

A dribble that touches both hands is considered stopping the dribble, giving this infraction the name double dribble.

Within a dribble, the player cannot carry the ball by placing his hand on the bottom of the ball; doing so is known as carrying the ball.

A team, once having established ball control in the front half of their court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and be the first to touch it.

A violation of these rules results in loss of possession. The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the fist. For the offense, a violation of these rules results in loss of possession; for the defense, most leagues reset the shot clock and the offensive team is given possession of the ball out of bounds.

There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway 8 seconds in FIBA and the NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA and high school for both sexes , before attempting a shot 24 seconds in FIBA, the NBA, and U Sports Canadian universities play for both sexes, and 30 seconds in NCAA play for both sexes , holding the ball while closely guarded 5 seconds , and remaining in the restricted area known as the free-throw lane, or the " key " 3 seconds.

These rules are designed to promote more offense. Basket interference , or goaltending is a violation charged when a player illegally interferes with a shot.

This violation is incurred when a player touches the ball on its downward trajectory to the basket, unless it is obvious that the ball has no chance of entering the basket, if a player touches the ball while it is in the rim, or in the area extended upwards from the basket, or if a player reaches through the basket to interfere with the shot.

When a defensive player is charged with goaltending, the basket is awarded. If an offensive player commits the infraction, the basket is cancelled.

In either case possession of the ball is turned over to the defensive team. An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through certain types of physical contact is illegal and is called a personal foul.

These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well.

Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful.

One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet 4. The referee is responsible for judging whether contact is illegal, sometimes resulting in controversy.

The calling of fouls can vary between games, leagues and referees. There is a second category of fouls called technical fouls , which may be charged for various rules violations including failure to properly record a player in the scorebook, or for unsportsmanlike conduct.

These infractions result in one or two free throws, which may be taken by any of the five players on the court at the time. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification.

A blatant foul involving physical contact that is either excessive or unnecessary is called an intentional foul flagrant foul in the NBA.

This is called shooting "one-and-one". If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half, the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.

When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not interfere with the shooter, nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air.

After a team has committed a specified number of fouls, the other team is said to be "in the bonus". On scoreboards, this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directional arrow or dot indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team.

Some scoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed. If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation, the opposing team must wait for the completion of the second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play.

If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a number of free throws equal to the value of the attempted shot.

A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot thus receives two shots, and a player fouled while attempting a three-point shot receives three shots.

If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful, typically the player will be awarded one additional free throw for one point.

In combination with a regular shot, this is called a "three-point play" or "four-point play" or more colloquially, an "and one" because of the basket made at the time of the foul 2 or 3 points and the additional free throw 1 point.

Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. In more recent times specific positions evolved, but the current trend, advocated by many top coaches including Mike Krzyzewski is towards positionless basketball, where big guys are free to shoot from outside and dribble if their skill allows it.

Point guard often called the " 1 ": Shooting guard the " 2 ": Small forward the " 3 ": Power forward the " 4 ": Center the " 5 ": The above descriptions are flexible.

For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings , as do the power forward and center, who are often called post players.

While most teams describe two players as guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some occasions teams choose to call them by different designations.

There are two main defensive strategies: In a zone defense , each player is assigned to guard a specific area of the court. Zone defenses often allow the defense to double team the ball, a manoeuver known as a trap.

In a man-to-man defense , each defensive player guards a specific opponent. Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball.

A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is known as a cut. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll , in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket.

Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork, which can lead to a successful basket.

Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur.

Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket, methods varying with players and situations.

Typically, a player faces the basket with both feet facing the basket. A player will rest the ball on the fingertips of the dominant hand the shooting arm slightly above the head, with the other hand supporting the side of the ball.

The ball is usually shot by jumping though not always and extending the shooting arm. The shooting arm, fully extended with the wrist fully bent, is held stationary for a moment following the release of the ball, known as a follow-through.

Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to absorb its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat controversial, but generally a proper arc is recommended.

Players may shoot directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket.

The two most common shots that use the above described setup are the set shot and the jump shot. The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws, and in other circumstances while the jump shot is taken in mid-air, the ball released near the top of the jump.

This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release the ball before the feet return to the floor is considered a traveling violation.

Another common shot is called the lay-up. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket, typically off the backboard the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll.

The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk , in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball downward, through the basket while touching it.

Another shot that is becoming common [ citation needed ] is the "circus shot". A back-shot is a shot taken when the player is facing away from the basket, and may be shot with the dominant hand, or both; but there is a very low chance that the shot will be successful.

A shot that misses both the rim and the backboard completely is referred to as an air ball. A particularly bad shot, or one that only hits the backboard, is jocularly called a brick.

The hang time is the length of time a player stays in the air after jumping, either to make a slam dunk, lay-up or jump shot. The objective of rebounding is to successfully gain possession of the basketball after a missed field goal or free throw, as it rebounds from the hoop or backboard.

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Basketball English Video

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The NBA has player rosters; college and high school teams have player rosters. When a player wants to substitute for another player on the court, they let the score bench know.

The referees will signal for the player waiting to come into the court. The player that went into the game is now playing and the player that was playing is sitting on the bench known as substitutes.

A game of basketball is made up of four different quarters, each ten or in the National Basketball Association , 12 minutes long.

At the start of every game the referee throws the basketball up in the air, and one player from each team tries to hit it to their teammates, that is called a "jump ball.

At the start of each quarter the team who has the possession arrow pointing towards their hoop gets the ball.

Then the arrow is switched, and the next team gets the ball next quarter. After four quarters, the team who scores the most points wins.

If the two teams score the same number of points, there is a five-minute "overtime" to see who can score more points.

While playing the game, players on one team try to stop players on the other team from scoring. Each normal score is worth two points; however, if a player throws the ball into the hoop from behind the large arced line on the court, called the "3-point line," the score is worth three points.

If a player does something illegal in the game, it is called a "foul. A free throw is a shot that no one is allowed to try to block.

Each successful free throw is worth one point. If a player fouls an opponent who is not shooting, the other team gets the ball, and can throw it in bounds from the sideline.

Players can do three things with the ball: The player with the ball tries to keep the ball and not let the other team get it. Once a player commits five fouls, he is no longer allowed to play in the game, and a player on the bench must go in the game immediately.

In a game of basketball, there are a number of officials who are not from either team, who are there to help. Officials are important to the game, and help it run efficiently.

Here is a list of some of these people:. Fans and media in North America will often use "referee" to describe all on-court officials, whether their formal titles are "referee", "umpire", or "crew chief".

There are some basketball terms that players have to understand when playing the game. Here are some terms:. In professional basketball teams, each player has a position.

A position is a job or role that a player has to take part in to play the game. If everyone is doing their job correctly, the team is usually successful.

There are many types of basketball. Some are for people with disabilities, others are played more by a specific group, some are played using only half the court, and some are for when there are fewer players.

This is the most popular "pick up game" variation of basketball. Pick up games are when teams are chosen on the court instead of having official teams.

Due to there being no referee, this more casual game has more relaxed rules than official games. Instead of 5 players, there are only three players on each team, hence the name.

While the exact rules vary from place to place, there are several common rules typically found in most games, including:. There are officially sponsored 3 on 3 tournaments, though the game is mostly played without an official league.

Twenty-one 21 is a variation of basketball that does not include teams. It is often played with odd-numbers of players or when there are too few players for 3 on 3 games.

The object of 21 is to score exactly 21 points. Players keep track of their own scores and call out their points after making a basket. All players play defense against all other players and compete for the rebound on a miss.

When a player makes a shot, he or she scores 2 points and is then awarded a chance to score an additional 3 points by attempting a series of free-throws.

The ball still had to pass through the hoop from above to score a goal, however, as it did when baskets were used.

The game soon spread to other U. Basketball is played on a rectangular court 28 metres long and 15 metres wide approx. Most indoor courts have a floor made of wood.

A goal scored from inside the three-point line earns two points see diagram at right , and a goal scored from outside the three-point line earns three points, and goals from free throws earn one point.

NBA games are played over four quarters of twelve minutes. Teams include twelve players, but only five can be on court at one time. Players can be substituted as often as the coach likes.

Each coach has a limited number of time-outs they can call during a game, and the game clock is stopped whenever play stops. Several officials oversee each game, including three on-court referees who call fouls, and table officials who keep score, run the game and shot clocks, and keep track of fouls and substitutions.

The ball can be moved by throwing it to another player called passing or by bouncing it with one hand while running or walking called dribbling.

If a player moves both feet without bouncing the ball, he commits a violation called travelling. If he uses two hands while dribbling, he commits a violation called double-dribbling.

Violations are also committed when time-limits are exceeded, and usually result in a free inbound pass for the opposition team.

A personal foul is committed when a player challenges another player unfairly, such as by blocking their run or hitting their arms.

A player or coach who argues with a referee commits a technical foul. Fouls can be punished with a free inbound pass, free throws at goal, or with sending off.

Players shoot for goal with a set shot if both feet are on the ground, or with a jump shot if the player is in mid-air.

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